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‘Pitcher Wreck’ Recalls Memories of Old Bay Line

by | Feb 3, 2018 | 8 comments

An Old Bay Line steamer pulls into dock Credit: National Archives

The “Pitcher Wreck!” What a fitting description of diver Don Shomette’s 1975 discovery of the steamship SS New Jersey sunk in the Upper Chesapeake Bay, Talbot County, Maryland. That’s how Don christened the site after discovering crates of milk-glass molasses and hobnail syrup pitchers in the cargo hold. The popular household containers had been immersed since the late 1800s when the steamship caught fire and sank south of Poplar Island. Rumors poured in, (pun intended) disputing its identity, until final reviews confirmed it as a Baltimore Steam Packet Company vessel.

The company, better known as The Old Bay Line, operated for 122 years (1840-1962), making it the oldest and last overnight packet steamship passenger service in the country. Sailing the Chesapeake Bay, mainly between Baltimore, Maryland, and Norfolk, Virginia, the vessels carried packets of mail issued through government contracts. The major qualification for these 19th century “packet steamers’ was to sail on a fixed daily schedule between two or more cities. In addition to its Baltimore to Norfolk runs, the line occasionally provided passenger, freight and vehicle transport to Washington, DC, Richmond and Old Port Comfort, Virginia.

Molasses and syrup pitchers salvaged from the wreck, Credit: Don Shomette

The stately, single funnel, triple deck liners were acclaimed for their genteel service and fine dining. Maryland crab cakes and Eastern Shore oyster dumplings were just two of many Chesapeake cuisine favorites. It seems fitting that the salvors retrieved some dining room artifacts, such as silverware, dishes, cups and saucers in addition to the pitchers. Serendipity kicked in later when the divers realized their discovery was one of the Free State’s finest old liners. Credit was given to Vance Henry, Captain of the Bammy II out of Chesapeake Beach, Maryland, for getting the “hit” on his fathometer and taking the divers to the site. He said he found it the year before when it appeared as a large object submerged in 50 to 80 feet of water. It was however, a somewhat dangerous dive. Swift currents, poor visibility and its location near major shipping lanes required considerable diving experience and no fear of claustrophobia.

Old Bay Line time table from the 1950s, Credit: Ellsworth Boyd Archives

“My buddy Jay Cook and I were the first to descend on the wreck,” Shomette said. “At a depth of 10 feet, darkness set in and we turned our dive lights on, but visibility still was only six inches.” Feeling their way, the divers accidentally swam into an upright timber, an unnerving experience, but proof they were on a wreck. Attaching a reel line to a sturdy timber, they descended 10 feet into a cargo hold. Groping in what had increased to one foot of visibility, the divers found broken crates of intact pitchers. Gently placing some of the glassware into their collection bag, they moved carefully through tangled machinery, piping and large lumps of coal. What appeared to be the vessel’s funnel lay in their path near one of the boilers.

Upon surfacing and examining the finds, they discovered an engraving on the pewter lid of one of the hobnail pitchers: “J.H. Hobbs & Co., Wheeling, W.Va., Pat. May 11, 1869.” Coupled with further research, this verified the wreck as the SS New Jersey, a steam packet vessel built in Baltimore in 1862. More evidence showed that it was engulfed in fire and sank while underway to Norfolk carrying 750 tons of freight. Fortunately, there were no passengers aboard and the captain and crew were rescued by an oysterman out on the Bay in his pungy.

The long tenure and history of the Old Bay Line steamers is impressive, especially the story of the Exodus. In 1942, during WWII, the line’s SS President Warfield became a transport ship for the British. After the war, in 1946, an underground Jewish organization in Palestine purchased it in an attempt to bring European refugees back to their Israel homeland (see the 1958 bestseller, Exodus by Leon Uris and the 1960 blockbuster film starring Paul Newman). Renamed SS Exodus—using the name in the Jews’ great biblical exodus from Egypt—the vessel reached shore off Palestine only to be turned away by the British. Although the effort failed, it was dubbed “the ship that launched a nation,” raising awareness of the Jews’ struggle for their homeland.

Wreck Site shown off Talbot County, Maryland Credit: Ellsworth Boyd Archives

Many factors contributed to the Old Bay Line’s demise: faster and cheaper transportation emerged; maintenance of the vessels and staff payroll increased; and the romance of early steamship travel diminished. In 1962, when the line’s future dimmed, many people hoped the company could still stay afloat (pun intended), but such was not to be the case.

Author: Ellsworth Boyd

Ellsworth Boyd, Professor Emeritus, College of Education, Towson University, Towson, Maryland, pursues an avocation of diving and writing. He has published articles and photo’s in every major dive magazine in the US., Canada, and half a dozen foreign countries. An authority on shipwrecks, Ellsworth has received thousands of letters and e-mails from divers throughout the world who responded to his Wreck Facts column in Sport Diver Magazine. When he’s not writing, or diving, Ellsworth appears as a featured speaker at maritime symposiums in Los Angeles, Houston, Chicago, Ft. Lauderdale, New York and Philadelphia. “Romance & Mystery: Sunken Treasures of the Lost Galleons,” is one of his most popular talks. A pioneer in the sport, Ellsworth was inducted into the International Legends of Diving in 2013.


  1. What an interesting article. I had no idea that Baltimore, my home town, had such a lovely steamboat going south to Norfolk, Virginia. I see the posted picture. What beautiful vessels they were. They stopped sailing in 1962. Do you by chance remember them?

  2. I remember the City of Richmond, one of the Old Bay Line’s vessels, docked at Baltimore’s harbor. Best of all I love the story of how the late Jean Haviland met her husband, Ken, aboard the City of Richmond. She was experiencing difficulty opening her cabin door & he came along & helped. They dated, got married, and had a long, wonderful life together. They were ship & shipwreck experts. Read all about Jean on, May 31, 2013. MY article is: The Wreck Lady: “She Will Have Shipwrecks Wherever She Goes.”

  3. I sailed on both the City of Richmond and City of Norfolk and had the good fortune of knowing the captains on both ships. That got me into the wheelhouse as a youngster and the opportunity to handle the big wooden steering wheel and the whistle. Both steamers were classics and excellent examples of the types of steamers that operated on Chesapeake Bay. If only we had vessels like them today. Ken and Jean Haviland were very good friends and we had many good times together.

  4. Jack: Thanks so much for sharing your fond memories of the City of Richmond and the City of Norfolk. And of our mutual friends, Jean and Ken Haviland. They were wonderful people and I miss them.I used to do research at their place in Roland Park. Jean and Ken loved the steamers of the Chesapeake,and like this wonderful couple, long gone but never forgotten. Ellsworth

  5. Ellsworth, I used to correspond with Jean Haviland when doing wreck research. I still have her letters, written in long hand, in my files. A wonderful lady!

  6. Rich: What a wonderful memory, learning that you still have Jean’s letters. She had a beautiful handwriting. She responded to all inquiries as long as the writer enclosed a stamp or stamped envelope. She was very helpful to many divers. She and Ken had the largest private maritime library/collection in the U.S. When they passed,everything was bequeathed to two maritime museums.

  7. Mr. Boyd,
    Thank you for your article. It was very informational. Do you have any idea where I might find a listing of the crew members from this steamship. Lore from a friend’s family indicates his 3x great grandfather may have been one of the crew.
    Thank you.

  8. Thank you for your nice comment. Try Jack Shaum. His email is: jmshaum@atlanticb
    If he can’t help you, email me directly at: I have one more possible source. Let me know how you make out.

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